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Key To Brodiaea Species in Mainland & Insular Southern California
South of San Luis Obispo & Kern Counties to the Mexican Border
© W.P. Armstrong 26 May 2009

 Pictorial Key To Brodiaeas In San Diego County 

1  Staminodes 0 in all flowers.....B. orcutii

1' Staminodes present in 90-100% of flowers.....(2)

2  Staminodes filiform or uniformly tapered from base to tip.....(3)

2' Staminodes oblong to rectangular in outline, tapering only near tip if at all.....(5)

3  Filaments 0-1.5 mm; staminodes 1.0-4.5 mm long, reflexed against perianth.....B. filifolia

3' Filaments 2-8 mm; staminodes 0.0-7.0 mm long, recurved to erect.....(4)

4  Perianth length 19-24 mm; style 8.0-9.5 mm; ovary 4.0-5.0 mm; anther 5.0-5.5 mm; San Marcos,
San Diego County.....B. filifolia x B. orcuttii

4' Perianth length 24-36 mm; style 10.5-17 mm; ovary 3.5-8.2 mm; anther 5.4-8.9 mm; Santa Rosa Plateau,
Elsinore Peak (Riverside County) to Miller Mountain (San Diego County).....B. santarosae

5  Staminodes gen erect, edges flat to inrolled, sometimes hooded, gen purple.....(6)

5' Staminodes recurved, edges flat, not hooded, pointed at tip, gen white; Mission Trails Regional Park,
San Diego County.....B. elegans ssp. elegans

6  Staminodes inrolled or hooded at apex, lvs 2-3; mainland & insular.....B. terrestris ssp. kernensis.....(7)

7 Staminodes typically hooded at apex; coastal and insular; Santa Barbara Co. to n. Baja Calif.....Coastal BTK*

7' Staminodes flattened or inrolled along margins; Kern County and montane southern California.....Montane BTK*

6' Staminodes flat, cuspidate at apex, lvs 1; San Clemente Island.....B. kinkiensis

Note: Although listed in many references for mainland & insular southern California, B. jolonensis appears to be endemic to the Coast Ranges of Monterey and possibly San Luis Obispo Counties.

* Brodiaea terrestris ssp. kernensis (BTK), including coastal & montane forms, is a large and diverse complex that extends from Santa Barbara and Kern Counties to the Mexican border. PCA data from Tom Chester thus far indicates that BTK is one variable species. BTK intergrades into variable populations on the Santa Rosa Plateau of Riverside County and at Cuyamaca Lake and Camp Pendleton in San Diego County. Fertile clonal variants have hooded staminodes, staminodes that are flattened and strap-shaped or inrolled along upper margins, and narrow staminodes that are tapered toward the apex. In addition, the staminodes may be erect, leaning slightly outward or leaning inward. Whether the anther connectives of BTK have a dentate appendage or V-shaped notch is also quite variable, particularly in Kern County populations. This trait is of little value in separating populations of BTK, but is fairly consistent in populations of B. terrestris ssp. terrestris (BTT) in San Luis Obispo and Monterey Counties. In general, populations of BTK in southern California lack a well-defined dentate connective; however, this trait occurs in some Kern County populations. These traits are apparently not under selection pressure and hence exhibit a lot of variability. In addition to clonal variants, there are occasional sterile hybrids between BTK and other sympatric populations, such as B. filifolia and B. orcuttii.

  Staminode Variation Of BTK On Santa Rosa Plateau  
Staminode Variation Of BTK At Camp Pendleton
Staminode Variation Of BTK At Cuyamaca Lake
Dentate Anther Connective In BTK Populations
 See On-Line Key To Brodiaea In Revised Jepson Manual Of California Plants