Exam #2 Hints
Wayne's WordIndexNoteworthy PlantsTriviaLemnaceaeBiology 101BotanySearch

Hints For Botany 115 Exam #2

Chemical Compounds Of Plants

For answers to many of the questions please refer to the Reading List for Exam #2.
Also try the Wayne's Word Index & Economic Plant Families.  Answers to most of
the questions can be found in Chemical Compounds Part I (Carbohydrates, Lipids,
Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Terpenes) and Chemical Compounds Part II (Phenolic
Compounds, Glycosides and Alkaloids). Use Edit-Find or Cntrol-F to locate specific
chemical compounds and hyperlinks on Chemical Compounds Part I and Part II.

Click On The Following Categories Of Biochemical Compounds.  Then
Navigate Through The Tables & Pull-Down Menus On Linked Pages:

I.  Carbohydrates
II.  Lipids
III.  Proteins
IV.  Nucleic Acids
V.  Terpenes
VI.  Phenolic Compounds
VII.  Glycosides
VIII.  Alkaloids
Click On One Of The Above Chemical Categories:
Press CTRL-F Keys To Find Specific Compounds

Part I, Matching: Questions 1-28.

Compounds I through IV in the above table comprise the four major compounds
of a living system. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen are the four major
elements of a living system. The four major compounds of all plants and animals
are composed primarily of the atoms from these four elements.

See The Major Elements Of Living Systems
See Periodic Table Of Elements In JavaScript

For information about fats & atherosclerosis: Chemistry Of Plant Oils

For information about natural plant oils and waxes: The Castor Bean

For information about amber & plant resins: Nature's Transparent Tomb

For information about elastic latex polyterpenes: Rubber And Chicle

For information about hyrdophilic thickening agents: Natural Plant Gums

For information about toxic plant alkaloids: Plants That Make You Loco

For information about the gourd family: The Remarkable Gourd Family

For information about a holly drink sipped from a gourd: Yerba Mate

For information about plant genetics and hybrids: See The Table Below

For Information About Plant Hybrids:

Apples: Polyploid Varieties
Bananas: Seedless Triploids
Cereals: Some Polyploid Hybrids
Grapes: Some Seedless Cultivars
Sterile Hybrids (Including The Mule)
Mustard Family Vegetable Hybrids
Tomatoes: Genetically Engineered
Watermelons: Seedless Melons

Note: Questions 3 (Part I) and 64 (Part II) mention the terms ester and alcohol. Compounds containing one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups in the molecules are known as alcohols. In fact, glycerol (the structural component of a fat molecule) contains three hydroxyl (OH) groups and is technically referred to as an alcohol. When glycerol is joined with three fatty acids (a process known as esterification), the resulting fat molecule is technically called an ester. Fat molecules are esters with three fatty acid chains, while waxes are long-chain esters composed of many fatty acids. The reaction between animal or plant fats (esters) with lye (sodium hydroxide) to form soap is called saponification.

Part II, Multiple Choice: Questions 29-69.

Note: Many Of These Questions Are Covered In The Previous Links

For information about gibberellins and auxins: Grapes and Tomatoes

For information about saponins: Soap Lilies In California

For information about natural steroids: True Yams: Largest Vegetable

For information about lignin: Hardwoods and Stem And Root Anatomy

For information about the alkaloid nicotine: The Tobacco Plant

For information about the alkaloid ephedrine: Mormon Tea

For information: caffeine & theobromine: Purine Alkaloids & Cacao

For information about tetrahydrocannabinol: Marijuana Plant & THC

For information about poisonous mushrooms: Toxic Fungi

For information about jojoba, candlenut & castor oil: Castor Bean

 Note:  Although the deadly protein (lectin) called ricin is obtained from
 castor bean seeds, it is not a component of castor oil; otherwise, taking
 a tablespoon of castor oil could be hazardous to your health.

For information about resins, incenses & waxes: Resins & Waxes

For information about tung oil and candlenuts: Tung Oil & Kukui Nut

Part III, Matching: Questions 70-90.

Part IV, Matching: Questions 91-132.

There are a total of 9 choices for these 42 questions, so some choices are used repeatedly. Since choice H (complex aldehyde) is not used for any of the questions, there are really only 8 choices. For example, the choice terpene (E) is used more than a dozen times. For some choices pick the best (most specific) answer. For example, #93 jojoba "oil" is definitely a lipid, but it is also a liquid wax, so choose "Wax" (Choice C). There are two additional waxes (Choice C) in this section.

Note: I am using the terms phenolic compound, phenolic subunit and phenolic derivative interchangeably. These are basically compounds with one or more phenolic rings in the molecule. A phenolic ring is a 6-carbon benzene ring with an attached hydroxyl (OH) group (also referred to as the hydroxyl functional group). Terpene compounds (terpene derivatives) typically do not contain phenolic rings, but there are some exceptions. The THC of marijuana is a terpene compound which also contains phenolic rings. It is sometimes called a terpenophenolic compound. Choice "H" (complex aldehyde) is not used for any of the questions in Part IV. In the previous version of this exam I used "complex alcohol" for choice H; however, complex alcohol could also fit THC, so I changed this choice to complex aldehyde. Although it is beyond the scope of this course, the reason "complex alcohol" could also be an answer for THC is due to the presence of hydroxyl (OH) groups. In organic chemistry, compounds containing one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups are called alcohols. In fact, glycerol (the structural component of a fat molecule) contains three hydroxyl (OH) groups and is technically referred to as an alcohol.

Part V, Matching: Questions 133-155.

Note: Many Of These Questions Are Covered In The Previous Links

For information about spices: Vanilla & Ginger and Cinnamon & Nutmeg

For information about selected herbs: Herbs I and Herbs II

For information about cyanogenic glucosides: Stone Fruits (Prunus)

For information about anticoagulant glucosides: Sweet Clover & Coumarin

For information about medical glucosides: Foxglove (Digitalis)

For information about LSD and ergot disease: Hallucinogenic Fungi

For information about natural lichen acids and mordants: Lichen Dyes

For information about thickening agents from algae: Phycocolloids

For information about natural lacquer and resins: Poison Oak & Resins

Part VI, Matching: Questions 156-178.

Part VII, Multiple Choice: Questions 179-200.

Note: Most Of These Questions Are Covered In The Previous Links

For information about medical alkaloids: Medical Alkaloids

For information about toxic alkaloids: Mushrooms & Poisonous Plants

For information about alkaloids: Major Types Of Alkaloids

For information about the alkaloid ephedrine: Mormon Tea

For information about the alkaloid erythroidine: Coral Beans

For information about the alkaloid cytisine: Mescal Beans

For information about the alkaloid tubocurarine: Curare

For information about frog alkaloids: Poison Dart Frogs

For information about cell-mediated immune respone: Poison Oak

For information about the alkaloid capsaicin: Chile Peppers

For information about vegetable ivory: Vegetable Ivory

For information about the rare coconut pearl: Coconut Pearl

For information about 15th century dyes: Logwood & Brazilwood

Go Back To The Chemical Compound Page
Go To The WAYNE'S WORD Home Page
Go To Biology GEE WHIZ TRIVIA Page