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Post-Burn Plant Succession Following The Comet Fire East Of Palomar College
Compiled by W.P. Armstrong During Winter & Spring Months Of 2021
Plant names follow Checklist Of The Vascular Plants Of San Diego County by
Jon Rebman & Michael Simpson, San Diego Natural History Museum, 2006.
Probably the most noteworthy discovery in this survey was the leaf-litter ant (genus Stenamma). About 85 species are known from cool, moist, forested regions of northern continents and neotropical regions. The small colonies of these subterannean ants are seldom encountered because they live in leaf litter, soil, and rotting wood. Finding them requires collecting techniques, such as pitfall traps and sifting through leaf litter. I never would have expected one in our local coastal sage scrub, especially in a burned area!
  Leaf-Litter Ant #1 
  Leaf-Litter Ant #2  
Ground Pink (Linanthus dianthiflorus)
Introduction: (WORK IN PROGRESS)
On 14 Jan. 2021 a wildfire of unknown origin swept across the hillsides east of campus. The fire was mostly confined to native Diegan coastal sage scrub along the eastern border of the San Marcos campus and south of the Edwin & Frances Hunter Arboretum at Palomar College. Wildfires have occurred in the local hillsides and Owens Peak area to the north several times during the past 50 years. The recent fire presents an excellent opportunity to see how well the native plant community recovers and specifically which species stump sprout from lignotubers and germinate from dormant “fire seeds.” The latter seeds lie dormant for decades and often germinate in profusion in rich, ashy soil with full sunlight. Of course, their perpetuation following fire is also related to temperate and the spacing and amount of winter and spring rains. I am especially interested in how the rare & endangered bottlewort (Sphaerocarpos drewiae), survived the fire. This rare liverwort endemic to California was discovered in spring 2000 by Palomar College professor Beth Pearson and her student Isabelle Massaro. In fact, NatureServe Explorer rates this species as G1 “Critically Imperiled.” Beth’s discovery has already interested other bryologists. The survey will also include ants. Because ants are sensitive to microclimate change, ground foraging ants are ideal functional measures of environmental disturbance. I have collected and photographed 16 species of ants on nearby Owens Peak. It would be interesting to see if any of these species show up in the burned area.

  16 Ant Species Documented For Owens Peak  

The coastal sage scrub has been described in several classic books about California's remarkable vegetation, some of which are out of print: Plant Communities of Southern California, Calif. Native Plant Society, by June Latting (1976), Endangered Plant Communities of Southern California, Proceedings of 15th Annual Symposium, Southern Calif. Botanists, by Allan Schoenherr (1989), Introduction To California Plant Life by Robert Ornduff, UC Press (2003), Terrestrial Vegetation of California, UC Press (1978,2007). I am very familiar with earlier edition since I coauthored a chapter. Since the dominant species of coastal sage scrub in coastal and inland counties of southern California is variable, the term "Diegan" has been adopted for coastal San Diego County.

Diegan Coastal Sage Scrub:
Diegan coastal sage scrub is the dominant type of scrub vegetation in coastal San Diego County and is the habitat for the sensitive California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica). Diegan coastal sage scrub is a native plant community characterized by low-growing, resinous, shrubs and subshrubs dominated by drought-dormant species. Native soil in the Arboretum hillside is decomposed granite (DG) derived from the gray monzogranite boulders and bedrock. Nearby Owens Peak ("P" Mountain) is composed of Santiago Peak metavolcanic rock, a dark, fine-grained, very hard, erosion-resistant rock. Las Posas Clay derived from San Marcos Gabbro also occurs in the lower areas around the campus. It supports a number of rare endemics, including several species of Brodiaea. In fact, I once found the rare and endangered B. filifolia in full bloom along fence line on west side of campus.

  Index Of Brodiaea Pages On Wayne's Word  

The native scrub vegetation adjacent to the Palomar College Arboretum is not chaparral. It does not contain all the dominant shrubs of true chaparral, such as chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), scrub oaks (Quercus), California lilacs (Ceanothus), mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus) and manzanitas (Arcostaphylos & Xylococcus), although the latter shrubs are common in the nearby San Marcos and Merriam Mountains that border Twin Oaks Valley. Our coastal sage scrub is an endangered plant community in coastal San Diego County, primarily due to the clearing of land for agriculture and housing developments. It has been estimated that less than 20% of the original extent of this vegetation may remain in southern California. Coastal sage scrub contains some seriously threatened birds, reptiles and insects, such as the California gnatcatcher. In fact, the latter bird was documented in our local coastal sage scrub during an environmental impact study contracted to Palomar College. This plant community has been extensively studied by wildlife biologists and numerous articles have been published about it. Governmental agencies such as the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and California Department of Fish & Game are well aware of its endangered status. For these reasons, it is very important to refer to our local native vegetation as coastal sage scrub and not chaparral. In a given region, the most dominant species has the greatest percent cover. One method for determining dominance is called the line intercept. This method is useful for analyzing a shrub community such as the chaparral or coastal sage scrub. A 100 ft. steel tape measure is placed at random in the area to be sampled. The distance that each species overlies (or underlies) the transect line is recorded in feet to the nearest tenth. Dominance is then calculated from the following relationship: Dominance = total distance covered by a species divided by the total distance of line intercepts.

Dominant shrub species in the local coastal sage scrub are California sagebrush (Artemisia californica), flat-topped buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum), black sage (Salvia mellifera), red bush monkeyflower (Mimulus aurantiacus var. puniceus), California bush sunflower (Encelia californica), and golden yarrow (Eriophyllum confertiflorum). Taller shrubs with tough, leathery (sclerophyllous) leaves include laurel sumac (Malosma laurina), lemonade berry (Rhus integrifolia), and toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia). The latter species are also common in chaparral. Other noteworthy species include deerweed (Lotus scoparius = Acmispon glaber ssp. glaber), saw-tooth goldenbush (Hazardia squarrosa), spiny redberry (Rhamnus crocea), coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis), mallow (Malacothamnus fasciculatus) and chaparral yucca (Yucca whipplei). In addition to shrubs, numerous annual wildflowers and grasses occur in open areas within the coastal sage shrub, along trails, and as dormant seeds in the shrub understory. They often appear in profusion after a fire followed by spring rains, one of the objectives of this study.

The southwest slopes of Owens Peak, visible from slopes above the Palomar College Arboretum are also covered by coastal sage scrub. The northern side of Owens Peak contains dominant shrubs of true chaparral. The following 7-part URL describes many of the native and naturalized species on this isolated peak in northern San Diego County. Its prominence is due to the very hard, erosion-resistant Santiago Peak metavolcanic rock.

  Flora & Fauna Of Owens Peak  

Low-growing, dominant shrubs of the coastal sage scrub are adapted to the long, dry summers in several ways. Remaining dormant throughout the dry season, they may lose 80% of their water. During this time they may drop many of their brittle, shriveled leaves or produce smaller leaves on secondary shoots. Root systems are generally shallow because the plants are inactive much of the time. They resprout from root crowns that are much smaller than well-anchored shrubs of taller chaparral species with woody, basal burls (lignotubers). It is relatively easy to clear away desiccated shrubs with a heavy hoe or McLeod during the summer drought season, compared with chaparral shrubs, such as scrub oak and manzanita. The oily, resinous leaves also help to conserve vital moisture, but increase their flammability. Shrubs and numerous species of post-burn wildflowers are fire adapted with seeds that readily germinate after fire. Coastal sage scrub is vulnerable to excessive or poorly-timed fires, particularly when competing with naturalized annual grasses and other weedy species, such as perennial mustard (Hirschfeldia incana). The common native vine throughout the coastal sage scrub called wild cucumber (Marah macrocarpus) sprouts soon after fires from a large, subterranean caudex. Under ideal natural conditions, complete recovery of coastal sage scrub after a fire is about 15 to 20 years. Fire intervals more frequent than 5-10 years will likely result in the replacement of coastal sage scrub by non-native grasses & forbs (J.F. O'Leary, Endangered Plant Communities of S. CA). Additional information about the coastal sage scrub habitat appears at following URL on the Wayne's Word Arboretum page.

  Palomar College Coastal Sage Scrub  

Methods & Purpose Of Study:
This study is confined to Palomar College Property and will essentially be a detailed list of native and naturalized species that appear in the burned area, listed alphabetically by plant family. This will require weekly surveys in the study area by myself and interested botany students and staff from Palomar College during the winter and spring months of 2021. In addition, some lichens and bryophytes will be included. Ant pitfall traps will also be placed throughout the burned area. This is not a quantitative vegetation analysis or comparison involving sampling data, such as absolute and relative dominance, density, frequency, importance values, etc., all discussed in Coastal Sage Scrub link on the Wayne’s Word Arboretum Page: Coastal Sage Scrub. The study will be enhanced with images of some of the fire-followers in full bloom taken during the study. As stated above, the recovery of coastal sage scrub depends a lot on our winter and spring rains. The pros & cons of brush fires in southern California is a controversial subject, particularly in urbanized areas; however, this interesting California plant community is sometimes rejuvenated by an occasional brush fire. In favorable rain years it truly fits the title of “ashes to wildflowers.”

George P. Malanson and Walter E. Westman. 1985. Postfire Succession in Californian Coastal Sage Scrub: The Role of Continual Basal Sprouting. The American Midland Naturalist Vol. 113, No. 2 (Apr.,1985), pp. 309-318.

Postfire Succession In Calf. Coastal Sage Scrub
  Ashes To Wildflowers: Postburn Plant Succession  

Note: This checklist was originally compiled between the years 1970 & 2003 during numerous field trips with my plant ID (Botany 110) classes at Palomar College. The last major update was in 2010. The list covers all the plants in open hills, fields & valleys surrounding Palomar College. Since the beginning of 3rd millennium & 21st century (January 1, 2001), many of these areas have been replaced with housing developments, gas stations & strip malls. I also included a field guide to the coastal sage scrub east of campus in my Biology 100 Lab Manual. For many years I took my general biology classes to the local hills during one of our laboratory sessions. There actually were numerous burrowing owls in some of these areas as shown on cover of my lab manual. For historical purposes, I think this master list should be included. In fact, there is a nearby field containing endangered vernal pools (see link below). I'm afraid with the increasing demand for housing, many of these vanishing natural habitats will be lost forever.

Biology 100 Laboratory Manual & Workbook
  San Marcos Vernal Pools & Brodiaea Populations  

Vascular Plant Families

Look Up Plant Family Alphabetically
Or Use Control-F and Type In a Word To Find The Plant


 Red Diamond: Recorded In Comet Fire Post-Burn (Feb-June 2021)

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  1. Sambucus mexicana Elderberry


  2. Chlorogalum parviflorum Soap Lily
  3. Chlorogalum pomeridianum var. pomeridianum Soap Lily
  4. Yucca whipplei Chaparral Yucca


  5. Carpobrotus aequilaterus Magenta-Flowered Sea Fig
  6. Carpobrotus edulis Yellow-Flowered Hottentot Fig


  7. Echinodorus bertoroi Bur Head


  8. Allium haematochiton Wild Onion (Long-Necked Onion)
  9. Allium peninsulare Wild Onion
  10. Allium praecox Wild Onion


  11. Amaranthus albus Amaranth Tumbleweed
  12. Amaranthus blitoides Prostrate Pigweed
  13. Amaranthus retroflexus Rough Pigweed


  14. Malosma laurina Laurel Sumac
  15. Rhus integrifolia Lemonadeberry
  16. Rhus ovata Sugar Bush
  17. Rhus trilobata Squaw Bush
  18. Schinus molle Peruvian Pepper Tree
  19. Toxicodendron diversilobum Poison Oak


  20. Ammi majus Bishop's Weed
  21. Anthriscus caucalis (A. scandicina) Bur Chervil
  22. Apium graveolens Common Celery
  23. Apiastrum angustifolium Wild Celery
  24. Berula erecta Cut-Leafed Water Parsnip
  25. Bowlesia incana Bowlesia
  26. Conium maculatum Poison Hemlock
  27. Daucus pusillus Wild Carrot
  28. Foeniculum vulgare Sweet Fennel
  29. Hydrocotyle ranunculoides Marsh Pennywort
  30. Lomatium dasycarpum ssp. dasycarpum Lace Parsnip
  31. Lomatium lucidum Hog Fennel
  32. Oenanthe sarmentosa Pacific Oenanthe
  33. Sanicula arguta Snakeroot
  34. Sanicula tuberosa Turkey Pea
  35. Tauschia arguta Tauschia
  36. Torilis arvensis Field Hedge-Parsley


  37. Vinca major Periwinkle


  38. Asclepias eriocarpa Milkweed
  39. Asclepias fascicularis Narrowleaf Milkweed
  40. Sarcostemma cynanchoides ssp. hartwegii Climbing Milkweed


  41. Asparagus asparagoides Smilax Asparagus

  42. Asphodelus fistulosus Asphodel


  43. Dryopteris arguta Wood Fern


  44. Achyrachaena mollis Blow-Wives
  45. Acourtia microcephala (Perezia microcephala) Purple Heads
  46. Ambrosia psilostachya var. californica Western Ragweed
  47. Anthemis cotula Mayweed
  48. Artemisia californica Coastal sagebrush
  49. Artemisia dracunculus Tarragon
  50. Artemisia palmeri Palmer Sagebrush
  51. Baccharis pilularis ssp. consanguinea Coyote Brush
  52. Baccharis salicifolia Mule Fat
  53. Baccharis sarothroides Chaparral Broom
  54. Bebbia juncea Sweet Bush
  55. Brickellia californica California Brickellia
  56. Calycadenia tenella Rosin Weed
  57. Carduus pycnocephalus Italian Thistle
  58. Centaurea melitensis Tocalote
  59. Chaenactis artemisiaefolia White Pincushion flower
  60. Chaenactis glabriuscula var. tenuifolia Yellow Pincushion flower
  61. Chaetopappa aurea Golden Daisy
  62. Chrysanthemum coronarium Garland Chysanthemum
  63. Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera Boneseed or Tick Bush
  64. Cichorium intybus Chicory
  65. Cirsium californicum California Thistle
  66. Cirsium occidentale Western Thistle
  67. Conyza bonariensis Tropical Horseweed
  68. Conyza canadensis Horseweed
  69. Coreopsis californica Coeopsis
  70. Corethrogyne filaginifolia var. virgata Virgate Sand Aster
  71. Cotula australis Australian Brass Buttons
  72. Cotula coronopifolia Brass Buttons
  73. Cynara cardunculus Wild Artichoke
  74. Dimorphotheca sinuata Cape Marigold
  75. Eclipta prostrata False Daisy
  76. Encelia californica California Bush Sunflower
  77. Encelia californica X E. farinosa Hybrid Encelia
  78. Encelia farinosa Desert Encelia (introduced in San Marcos)
  79. Erigeron foliosus var. stenophyllus Fleabane
  80. Eriophyllum confertiflorum Golden Yarrow
  81. Filago californica California Flufffweed
  82. Filago gallica (Narrowleaf Filago) Fluffweed (lvs. awl-shaped)
  83. Gnaphalium bicolor Everlasting
  84. Gnaphalium californicum Green Everlasting
  85. Gnaphalium palustre Cudweed
  86. Gnaphalium stramineum (G. chilense) Cotton Batting Plant
  87. Grindelia robusta var. robusta Gumplant
  88. Gutierrezia californica Matchweed
  89. Hazardia squarrosa ssp. grindeloides Sawtooth Goldenbush
  90. Hedypnois cretica Hedypnois
  91. Helianthus annus Annual Sunflower
  92. Helianthus gracilentus Slender Sunflower
  93. Hemizonia fasciculata Tarweed
  94. Heterotheca grandiflora Telegrah Weed
  95. Holocarpha virgata ssp. elongata Tarweed
  96. Hypochoeris glabra Smooth Cat's Ear
  97. Isocoma veneta var. vernonioides Coastal Goldenbush
  98. Iva haysiana San Diego Poverty Weed
  99. Lactuca sativa Prickly Lettuce
  100. Lasthenia californica Goldfields
  101. Layia platyglossa ssp. campestris Tidy Tips
  102. Leucanthemum vulgare (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum) Ox-eye Daisy
  103. Madia exigua Tarweed
  104. Matricaria matricarioides Pineapple Weed
  105. Oncosiphon piluliferum (Cotula pilulifera, Matricaria globulifera)
  106. Picris echioides Ox Tongue
  107. Pluchea odorata var. odorata Marsh Fleabane
  108. Porophyllum gracile Odora
  109. Psilocarphus tenellus Dwarf Wooly Heads
  110. Rafinesquia californica Calif. Chicory
  111. Senecio californicus Calif. Senecio
  112. Senecio vulgaris Common Groundsel
  113. Silybum marianum Milk Thistle
  114. Solidago californica Goldenrod
  115. Sonchus asper Prickly Sow Thistle
  116. Sonchus oleraceus Sow Thistle
  117. Stephanomeria diegensis San Diego Wreath Plant (probably)
  118. Stylocline gnaphalioides Everlasting Nest Straw (small ann. with globose heads)
  119. Taraxacum officinale Common Dandelion
  120. Tragopogon porrifolius Purple Salsify
  121. Uropappus lindleyi (Microseris linearifolia) Silver Puffs
  122. Venegasia carpesioides Jesuit Flower
  123. Xanthium spinosum Spiny Cocklebur
  124. Xanthium strumarium Cocklebur

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  125. Mahonia pinnata spp. pinnata Barberry

    BORAGINACEAE (Also See Hydrophyllaceae)

  126. Amsinckia menziesii var. intermedia Yellow Fiddleneck
  127. Cryptantha clevelandii var. clevelandii Cleveland's Cryptantha (Emerald Heights)
  128. Cryptantha intermedia White Forget-Me-Not
  129. Cryptantha micromeres Cryptantha
  130. Cryptantha muricata var. jonesii Cryptantha
  131. Heliotropium curassavicum var. oculatum Heliotrope
  132. Pectocarya linearis var. ferocula Comb Bur
  133. Plagiobothrys acanthocarpus Adobe Popcorn Flower
  134. Plagiobothrys californicus var. californicus Popcorn Flower
  135. Plagiobothrys californicus var. fulvescens Popcorn Flower
  136. Plagiobothrys nothofulvus Red-Stain Plagiobothrys


  137. Brassica rapa Field Mustard
  138. Brassica nigra Black Mustard
  139. Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepard's Purse
  140. Cardamine californica Milk Maids
  141. Cardamine flexuosa Bitter Cress (introduced in Twin Oaks Valley)
  142. Cardaria chalepensis Lens-Podded Hoary Cress
  143. Cardaria draba Heart-Podded Hoary Cress
  144. Caulanthus (Streptanthus) heterophyllus var. heterophyllus Jewel Flower
  145. Caulanthus simulans Payson's Caulanthus
  146. Hirschfeldia incana (Brassica geniculata) Perennial Mustard
  147. Lepidium lasiocarpum var. lasiocarpum Annual Peppergrass
  148. L. latifolium Broadleaf Peppergrass (rhizomatous perennial)
  149. L. nitidum var. nitidum Shining Peppergrass
  150. L. virginicum var. pubescens Peppergrass
  151. L. virginicum var. robinsii Robinson's Peppergrass (rare)
  152. Lobularia maritima Sweet Alyssum
  153. Raphanus sativus Wild Radish
  154. Rapistrum rugosum Wild Turnip
  155. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum Water Cress
  156. Sisymbrium irio London Rocket
  157. Sisymbrium orientale Sisymbrium
  158. Thelypodium lasiophyllum Calif. Mustard
  159. Thysanocarpus laciniatus Lace Pod
  160. Tropidocarpum gracile Dobie Weed

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  161. Ferocactus viridescens Coast Barrel Cactus
  162. Opuntia ficus-indica Indian Fig
  163. Opuntia littoralis var. littoralis Coast Prickly-Pear
  164. Opuntia x vaseyi Vasey's Prickly-Pear


  165. Callitriche longipedunculata Water Starwort


  166. Downingia cuspidata Downingia (becoming rare)
  167. Triodonus perfoliata var. biflora Venus Looking Glass


  168. Cannabis sativa Indian Hemp


  169. Lonicera subspicata Wild Honeysuckle


  170. Cardionema ramosissimum Tread Lightly
  171. Cerastium glomeratum var. apetalum Mouse-ear Chickweed
  172. Cerastium glomeratum var. glomeratum Mouse-ear Chickweed
  173. Polycarpon depressum California Polycarp
  174. Polycarpon tetraphyllum Four-Leaf Polycarp (sepals 2 mm, 1 mm in P. depressum)
  175. Silene antirrhina Catchfly
  176. Silene gallica Windmill Pink
  177. Silene laciniata Indian Pink
  178. Silene multinervia Catchfly
  179. Spergula arvensis Spurrey
  180. Spergularia villosa Sand Spurrey
  181. Stellaria media Chickweed


  182. Ceratophyllum demersum Hornwort

    CHENOPODIACEAE (Amaranthaceae)

  183. Atriplex patula ssp. hastata Hastate-leaf Saltbush
  184. Atriplex semibaccata Australian Saltbush
  185. Chenopodium album Lamb's Quarters
  186. Chenopodium ambrosioides var. ambrosioides Mexican Tea
  187. Chenopodium californicum Calif. Goosefoot
  188. Salsola iberica Russian Thistle


  189. Helianthemum scoparium var. aldersonii Rock Rose


  190. Calystegia macrostegia ssp. intermedia South Coast Morning Glory
  191. Calystegia macrostegia ssp. tenuifolia San Diego Morning Glory
    [Acc. to Tom Chester, above 2 ssp. may be variations of ssp. arida]
  192. Convolvulus arvenis Bindweed
  193. Cuscuta californica Dodder
  194. Cuscuta ceanothi Dodder


  195. Crassula erecta Pigmy Weed
  196. Dudleya lanceolata Coastal Dudleya
  197. Dudleya pulverulenta ssp. pulverulenta Chalk Lettuce


  198. Marah macrocarpus Wild Cucumber



  199. Carex praegracilis Cluster Field Sedge
  200. Carex spissa San Diego Sedge
  201. Carex triquetra Triangular Fruit Sedge
  202. Cyperus eragrostis Tall Flatsedge
  203. Cyperus erythrorhizos Red-Roted Cyperus
  204. Cyperus esculentus Nut Grass
  205. Cyperus involucratus Umbrella Sedge
  206. Cyperus niger var. capitatus Brown Umbrella Sedge
  207. Cyperus papyrus Egyptian Papyrus
  208. Eleocharis acicularis Slender Spike Sedge
  209. Eleocharis macrostachya Spike Sedge (Wire Grass)
  210. Eleocharis montevidensis var. montevidensis Spike Sedge
  211. Scirpus acutus Bulrush or Tule
  212. Scirpus americanus Olney's Bulrush
  213. Scirpus californicus California Bulrush
  214. Scirpus robustus Prairie Bulrush

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  215. Datisca glomerata Durango Root

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  216. Equisetum arvense Common Horsetail
  217. Equisetum laevigatum Scouring Rush


  218. Arctostaphylos glandulosa Manzanita
  219. Comarostaphylis diversifolia Summer Holly
  220. Xylococcus bicolor Mission Manzanita


  221. Acalypha californica California Copperleaf (Poway)
  222. Chamaesyce albomarginata Sandmat
  223. Chamaesyce maculata Spotted Spurge
  224. Chamaesyce polycarpa var. polycarpa Sandmat
  225. Croton californicus ssp. californicus Croton
  226. Eremocarpus setigerus Doveweed
  227. Euphorbia peplus Spurge
  228. Ricinus communis Castor Bean
  229. Stillingia linearifolia Stillingia
  230. Tetracoccus dioicus Tetracoccus

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  231. Amorpha fruticosa var. occidentalis False Locust
  232. Astragalus gambelianus Locoweed
  233. Astragalus trichopodus ssp. leucopsis Coast Locoweed
  234. Lathyrus vestitus var. alefeldii San Diego Sweet Pea
  235. Lotus heermannii Wooly Lotus
  236. Lotus purshianus ssp. purshianus Spanish Clover
  237. Lotus scoparius ssp. brevialatus Deerweed (wings shorter than keel)
  238. Lotus scoparius ssp. scoparius Deerweed
  239. Lotus strigosus Lotus
  240. Lupinus agardhianus Lupine
  241. Lupinus bicolor ssp. microphyllus Lupine
  242. Lupinus concinnus ssp. concinnus Lupine
  243. Lupinus densiflorus var. austrocollium White Lupine
  244. Lupinus excubitus var. hallii Lupine
  245. Lupinus hirsutissimus Lupine
  246. Lupinus longifolius Bush Lupine
  247. Lupinus sparsiflorus ssp. inopinatus Lupine
  248. Lupinus truncatus Lupine
  249. Medicago lupulina Black Medic
  250. Medicago polymorpha Bur Clover
  251. Medicago sativa Alfalfa
  252. Melilotus albus White Sweet Clover
  253. Melilotus indicus Yellow Sweet Clover
  254. Trifolium ciliolatum Clover
  255. Trifolium hirtum Rose Clover (similar to red clover, calyx densely plumose)
  256. Trifolium incarnatum Crimson Clover
  257. Trifolium pratense Red Clover
  258. Trifolium repens White Clover
  259. Trifolium tridentatum var. aciculare Tomcat Clover
  260. Trifolium variegatum var. variegatum Clover
  261. Vicia ludoviciana Vetch
  262. Vicia sativa Spring Vetch
  263. Vicia villosa Winter Vetch


  264. Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia Coast Live Oak
  265. Quercus berberidifolia Scrub Oak
  266. Quercus engelmannii Engelmann Oak
  267. Quercus wizlizenii var. frutescens Scrub Live Oak

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  268. Centaurium venustum Canchalagua
  269. Centaurium exaltatum Great Basin Centaury


  270. Erodium botrys Long-beak Filaree
  271. Erodium cicutarium Filaree
  272. Erodium moschatum Filaree
  273. Erodium obtusiplicatum Long-beak Filaree
  274. Geranium carolinianum Wild Geranium

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    HYDROPHYLLACEAE (Now Included In Boraginaceae)

  275. Emmenanthe penduliflora Whispering Bells
  276. Eriodictyon crassifolium Yerba Santa
  277. Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia ssp. chrysathemifolia Eucrypta
  278. Nemophila menziesii Baby Blue-eyes
  279. Phacelia cicutaria var. hispida Caterpillar Phacelia
  280. Phacelia distans Blue Fiddleneck
  281. Phacelia grandiflora Large-flowered Phacelia
  282. Phacelia minor Wild Canterbury Bells
  283. Phacelia parryi Parry Phacelia
  284. Pholistoma auritum ssp. auritum Pholistoma
  285. Pholistoma membranaceum White flowered Pholistoma
  286. Pholistoma racemosum White flowered Pholistoma

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  287. Sisyrinchium bellum Blue-eyed Grass

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  288. Juncus acutus ssp. leopoldii Spiny Rush
  289. Juncus bufonius var. bufonius Toad Rush
  290. Juncus dubius Mariposa Rush
  291. Juncus xiphioides Iris-Leaf Rush

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  292. Acanthomintha ilicifolia San Diego Thornmint
  293. Lamium amplexicaule Henbit
  294. Marrubium vulgare Horehound
  295. Monardella hypoleuca ssp. lanata Felt-Leaf Monardella
  296. Salvia apiana White Sage
  297. Salvia clevelandii Cleveland Sage
  298. Salvia columbariae Chia
  299. Salvia mellifera Black Sage
  300. Scutellaria tuberosa ssp. australis Skullcap
  301. Stachys rigida Hedgenettle
  302. Trichostema lanceolatum Vinegar Weed


  303. Landoltia punctata Duckweed
  304. Lemna gibba Gibbous Duckweed
  305. Lemna minuta Duckweed
  306. Lemna turionifera Turion Duckweed
  307. Wolffia borealis Watermeal
  308. Wolffia columbiana Watermeal
  309. Wolffia globosa Watermeal (Lake Hodges)


  310. Calochortus catalinae Mariposa Lily
  311. Calochortus splendens Mariposa Lily
  312. Calochortus weedii var. weedii Golden Mariposa Lily
  313. Fritillaria biflora var. biflora Chocolate Lily
  314. Zigadenus fremontii var. fremontii Star Lily
  315. Zigadenus fremontii var. minor Star Lily
  316. Zigadenus venenosus Death Camas


  317. Hesperolinon micranthum Small flowered Flax


  318. Ammannia coccinea Valley Red-stem
  319. Lythrum californicum
  320. Lythrum hyssopifolium Grass Polly

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  321. Lavatera assurgentiflora Malva Rosa
  322. Malacothamnus fasciculatus ssp. fasciculatus Bush Mallow
  323. Malva parviflora Cheeseweed
  324. M. pseudolavatera High Mallow (Twin Oaks Valley & Borden Road)
  325. Sidalcea malvaeflora ssp. sparsifolia Checker-bloom


  326. Proboscidea louisianica ssp. louisianica Unicorn Plant (Devil's Claw)


  327. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Red Gum

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  328. Abronia umbellata ssp. umbellata Sand Verbena (Santa Margarita River)
  329. Mirabilis laevis Wild Four O'Clock

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  330. Camissonia bistorta Sun Cup
  331. Camissonia californica Mustard Evening Primrose
  332. Camissonia hirtella Sun Cup
  333. Camissonia ignota Sun Cup
  334. Clarkia delicata Delicate Clarkia
  335. Clarkia epilobioides Clarkia
  336. Clarkia purpurea ssp. quadrivulnera Farewell To Spring
  337. Clarkia similis Clarkia
  338. Clarkia unguiculata Clarkia
  339. Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum Willow Herb
  340. Epilobium brachycarpum (E. paniculatum) Summer Cottonweed
  341. Gaura sinuata Gaura
  342. Ludwigia peploides ssp. peploides Willow Water-Weed
  343. Oenothera elata ssp. hirsutissima Tall Evening Primrose


  344. Castilleja affinis Indian Paintbrush
  345. Castilleja densiflora ssp. gracilis (Orthocarpus) Owl's Clover
  346. Castilleja exserta ssp. exserta (Orthocarpus purpurascens var. purpurascens) Owl's Clover
  347. Castilleja stenantha Annual Paintbrush
  348. Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. setigerus (C. filifolius) Bird's Beak
  349. Orobache bulbosa Chaparral Broom-Rape
  350. Pedicularis densiflora Indian Warrior


  351. Oxalis californica Oxalis
  352. Oxalis pes-caprae Bermuda Buttercup

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  353. Paeonia californica Calif. Paeony


  354. Dicentra chrysantha Golden Ear-drops
  355. Eschscholzia californica Calif. Poppy
  356. Papaver clifornicum Fire Poppy
  357. Platystemon californicus Cream Cups
  358. Stylomecon heterophylla Wind Poppy


  359. Mimulus aurantiacus (Incl. ssp. australis & M. puniceus) Bush Monkeyflower
  360. Mimulus brevipes Hillside Monkeyflower
  361. Mimulus cardinalis Scarlet Monkeyflower
  362. Mimulus fremontii Fremont Monkeyflower
  363. Mimulus guttatus ssp. guttatus Aquatic Monkeyflower
  364. Mimulus pilosus Downy Mimetanthe
  365. Mimulus puniceus Red Bush Monkeyflower (Syn. M. aurantiacus)


  366. Antirrhinum coulterianum White Snapdragon
  367. Antirrhinum kelloggii Climbing Snapdragon
  368. Antirrhinum nuttallianum Snapdragon
  369. Collinsia heterophylla Chinese Houses
  370. Keckiella antirrhinoides Yellow Bush Penstemon
  371. Keckiella cordifolia Climbing Penstemon
  372. Linaria canadensis var. texana Toadflax
  373. Penstemon spectabilis Penstemon
  374. Plantago erecta ssp. erecta Plantain
  375. Plantago lanceolata Plantain
  376. Plantago ovata Wooly Plantain
  377. Stemodia durantifolia Blue Streamwort
  378. Veronica anagallis-acquatica Water Speedwell


  379. Platanus racemosa Calif. Sycamore


  380. Arundo donax Giant Reed
  381. Avena barbata Slender Wild Oat
  382. Avena fatua Wild Oat
  383. Avena sativa Cult. Oat
  384. Bromus diandrus Ripgut Grass
  385. Bromus mollis Soft Chess
  386. Bromus rubens Red Brome
  387. Bromus unioloides Rescue Grass
  388. Cortaderia selloana Pampas Grass
  389. Cynodon dactylon Bermuda Grass
  390. Dactylis glomerata Orchard Grass
  391. Deschampsia danthonioides var. gracilis Annual Hair Grass
  392. Digitaria ciliaris Crabgrass
  393. Distichlis spicata ssp. spicata Salt Grass
  394. Echinochloa crus-gali Barnyard Grass
  395. Ehrharta erecta Veldt Grass (Invasive perennial)
  396. Elymus condensatus Wild Rye Grass
  397. Festuca arundinacea Reed Fescue
  398. Gastridium ventricosum Nitgrass
  399. Holcus lanatus Velvet Grass
  400. Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum Foxtail Barley
  401. Hordeum murinum ssp. leporinum Foxtail Barley
  402. Hordeum vulgare Cult. Barley
  403. Koeleria pyramidata June Grass
  404. Lamarckia aurea Golden Top
  405. Leptochloa uninerva Sprangletop
  406. Lolium multiflorum Italian Rye Grass
  407. Melica imperfecta Calif. Melic
  408. Muhlenbergia microsperma Littleseed Muhly
  409. Muhlenbergia rigens Deer Grass
  410. Panicum capillare var. occidentale Witchgrass
  411. Paspalam paspalodes Common Knotgrass
  412. Pennisetum clandestinum Kikuyu Grass
  413. Pennisetum setaceum Fountain Grass
  414. Phalaris angusta Canary Grass
  415. Phalaris minor Mediterranean Canary Grass
  416. Poa annua Annual Bluegrass
  417. Polypogon monspeliensis Rabbitfoot Grass
  418. Rhynchelytrum roseum Natal Grass
  419. Schismus barbatus Schismus
  420. Secale cereale Cultivated Rye
  421. Sorghum halepense Johnson Grass
  422. Stipa coronata Giant Stipa
  423. Stipa lepida Foothill Stipa
  424. Stipa pulchra Purple Stipa
  425. Vulpia myuros var. hirsuta Foxtail Fescue
  426. Vulpia microstachys var. pauciflora Pacific Vescue
  427. Vulpia octoflora var. octoflora Slender Fescue
  428. Zea mays Cultivated Corn


  429. Allophyllum glutinosum Allophyllum
  430. Eriastrum filifolium Eriastrum
  431. Gilia achilleaefolia ssp. achilleaefolia Blue Gilia
  432. Gilia angelensis Blue Gilia
  433. Gilia capitata ssp. abrotanifolia Gilia
  434. Linanthus androsaceus ssp. micranthus Golden Linanthus
  435. Linanthus dianthiflorus Ground Pink
  436. Navarretia hamata Navarretia


  437. Chorizanthe fimbriata Turkish Rugging
  438. Chorizanthe procumbens Turkish Rugging
  439. Chorizanthe staticoides Turkish Rugging
  440. Eriogonum fasciculatum var. foliolosum & var. fasciculatum Wild Buckwheat
  441. Persicaria lapathifolia Willow Smartweed
  442. Polygonum arenastrum Yard Knotweed
  443. Pterostegia drymarioides Calif. Threadstem
  444. Rumex crispus Curly Dock
  445. Rumex conglomeratus Clustered Dock


  446. Polypodium californicum Polypody Fern


  447. Calandrinia ciliata var. menziesii Red Maids
  448. Calyptridium monandrum Calyptridium
  449. Claytonia perfoliata ssp. perfoliata Miner's Lettuce
  450. Claytonia parviflora ssp. parviflora? Narrowleaf Miner's Lettuce
  451. Portulaca oleracea Common Purslane


  452. Anagallis arvensis Pimpernel
  453. Anagallis arvensis var. caerulea Blue Pimpernel
  454. Dodecatheon clevelandii ssp. clevelandii Shooting Star


  455. Adiantum jordanii Maidenhair Fern
  456. Cheilanthes clevelandii Scaly Lipfern
  457. Cheilanthes (Notholaena) newberryi Cottony Lipfern
  458. Notholaena (Cheilanthes) californica California Lace Fern
  459. Pellaea andromedaefolia var. andromedaefolia Coffee Fern
  460. Pellaea mucronata var. mucronata Bird's foot Fern
  461. Pityrogramma triangularis var. triangularis Goldenback Fern
  462. Pityrogramma triangularis var. viscosa Silverback Fern

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  463. Clematis pauciflora Virgin's Bower
  464. Delphinium cardinale Scarlet Larkspur
  465. Delphinium parryi Blue Larkspur
  466. Thalictrum polycarpum Meadow Rue


  467. Reseda odorata Common Mignonette


  468. Adolphia californica California Adolphia
  469. Ceanothus crassifolius White Ceanothus
  470. Ceanothus oliganthus Ceanothus
  471. Ceanothus tomentosus var. olivaceus Blue Ceanothus
  472. Ceanothus verrucosus Wart-Stem Ceanothus
  473. Rhamnus crocea Spiny Redberry
  474. Rhamnus ilicifolia Hollyleaf Redberry


  475. Adenostoma fasciculatum Chamise
  476. Alchemilla occidentalis Alchemilla
  477. Cercocarpus minutiflorus Mountain Mahogany
  478. Chamaebatia australis Mountain Misery
  479. Heteromeles arbutifolia Toyon
  480. Horkelia truncata Horkelia
  481. Potentilla glandulosa Potentilla
  482. Prunus ilicifolia Hollyleaf Cherry
  483. Rosa californica California Rose
  484. Rubus ursinus Wild Blackberry


  485. Galium angustifolium ssp. angustifolium Narrow-leaf Bedstraw
  486. Galium aparine Bedstraw
  487. Galium nuttallii Climbing Bedstraw


  488. Cneoridium dumosum Bush Rue

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  489. Populus fremontii var. frenontii Fremont Cottonwood
  490. Salix laevigata var. araquipa Red Willow
  491. Salix lasiolepis var. lasiolepis Arroyo Willow
  492. Salix gooddingii var. variabilis Black Willow
  493. Salix hindsiana var. leucodendroides Sand-bar Willow


  494. Azolla filiculoides Duckweed Fern


  495. Anemopsis californica Yerba Mansa


  496. Jepsonia parryi Coastal Jepsonia
  497. Lithophragma affine ssp. mixtum Woodland Star
  498. Ribes indecorum White-flowered Currant
  499. Ribes speciosum Fuschia-flowered Gooseberry


  500. Scrophularia californica ssp. floribunda Calif. Figwort


  501. Selaginella bigelovii Selaginella
  502. Selaginella cinerascens Ashy Selaginella

  503. Ailanthus altissima Tree of Heaven


  504. Datura wrightii (Datura meteloides) Jimsonweed
  505. Nicotiana bigelovii var. wallacei Wild Tobacco
  506. Nicotiana clevelandii Cleveland Tobacco
  507. Nicotiana glauca Tree Tobacco
  508. Petunia parviflora Small-flowered Petunia
  509. Physalis greenei Ground Cherry
  510. Solanum americanum (S. nodiflorum) Small-Flowered White Nightshade
  511. Solanum douglasii White Nightshade
  512. Solanum parishii Purple Nightshade

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  513. Bloomeria crocea ssp. crocea Golden Stars
  514. Brodiaea filifolia Threadleaf Brodiaea
  515. Brodiaea terrestris ssp. kernensis Mesa Brodiaea
  516. Brodiaea orcutii Orcutt Brodiaea
  517. Dichelostemma capitatum ssp. capitatum (D. pulchellum) Wild Hyacinth
  518. Muilla maritima Muilla


  519. Typha domingensis Tule Cattail
  520. Typha latifolia Common Cattail

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  521. Hesperocnide tenella Dwarf Nettle
  522. Parietaria floridana Parietaria
  523. Urtica dioica ssp. holosericea Nettle
  524. Urtica urens Annual Nettle

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  525. Centranthus ruber Red Valerian


  526. Lippia lanceolata Lance-leaf Lippia
  527. Lippia nodiflora var. rosea Garden Lippia
  528. Verbena lasiostachys Verbena
  529. Verbena menthaefolia Mint-leaf Verbena


  530. Viola pedunculata Johnny Jump Up


  531. Phoradendron tomentosum ssp. macrophyllum Mistletoe
  532. Phoradendron villosum Oak Mistletoe


  533. Vitis girdiana Wild Grape

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  534. Tribulus terrestris Puncture Vine

    LIVERWORTS: (Also On Owens Peak)

    THALLOID LIVERWORTS: Class Marchantiopsida

  1. Asterella sp. (cf. A. palmeri) Owens Peak 7 (Liverworts)
  2. Sphaerocarpos drewiae Owens Peak 7 (Liverworts)
  3. Riccia sp. Owens Peak 7 (Liverworts)

    LEAFY LIVERWORTS: Class Jungermanniosida

  4. Fossombronia pusilla Owens Peak 7 (Liverworts)

    LICHENS: (Also On Owens Peak)


  1. Cladonia chlorophaea Gray-green lichen with podetia
  2. Diploschistes scruposus Grayish white lichen


  3. Candelaria concolor Lemon-yellow lichen on shrubs
  4. Flavoparmelia caperata Gray foliose lichen on shrubs
  5. Flavopunctelia flaventior Greenish foliose lichen


  6. Acarospora bullata Brown rock lichen
  7. Acarospora socialis (A. schleicheri) Yellow rock lichen
    Black Rock Lichens In Arboretum: Buellia & Verrucaria (8 & 9):
  8. Buellia pullata See Identification of Buellia pullata
  9. Verrucaria nigrescens Pyrenocarpous black rock lichen
  10. Caloplaca bolacina Orange rock lichen
  11. Dimelaena radiata Gray rock lichen
  12. Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia Foliose rock lichen
  13. Xanthoparmelia mexicana Foliose rock lichen

    FUNGI: Also On Owens Peak

  14. Calvatea gigantea Giant Puffball
  15. Cyathus olla Bird's Nest Fungus
  16. Geastrum sp. Earth Star
  17. Lysurus cruciatus Lizard's Claw Stinkhorn
  18. Tulostoma brumale "group" (cf. T. berteroanum) Stalked Puffball
  19. Cross-Veined Troop Mushroom (cf. Xeromphalina--Maybe X. kauffmanii)
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Unusual Bird's Nest Fungus

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