Arboretum Images 7
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Edwin & Frances Hunter Arboretum Images 7: Shrubs #1
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  See Article About Wigandia caracasana In Arboretum   

Borage Family (Boraginacae)

Pride of Madeira (Echium fastuosum = E. candicans), a striking shrub native to the Canary Islands. The borage family includes many species of wildflowers in California, including white forget-me-nots (Cryptantha and Plagiobothrys) and yellow fiddlenecks (Amsinckia). Some of these occur in the Arboretum and adjacent coastal sage scrub after spring rains. The family also includes a beautiful hardwood tree that is native to the Caribbean Islands (Cordia).

  A Caribbean Hardwood Tree In The Boraginaceae  
A Common Wildflower In The Boraginaceae

Soothing Medicinal Teas Made From Flowers of Echium & Borago

Borage (Borago officinalis), type genus for the family Boraginaceae and naturalized annual in San Diego County. The leaves & flowers are eaten in salads and brewed into tea.

A. Gaozaban (Echium amoenum). The dried flowers are used for a popular medicinal tea in Iran, India and Pakistan. The tea is a rich source of antioxidants, including rosmarinic acid and bioflavonoids. Borage is sometimes confused with gaozaban, but the flowers are quite different. The tubular corollas of gaozaban are slightly irregular (zygomorphic) compared with the regular, star-shaped flowers of borage. These differences can even be determined in dried, pressed flowers. B. The dried flowers of borage (Borago officinalis) are also brewed into a soothing tea.

Mint Family (Lamiaceae)

Westringia 'wynyabbie' (Westringia eremicola x W. fruticosa). This interesting shrub near the main entrance sign is a hybrid between two native Australian species. It is also called "coastal rosemary," but true rosemary is Rosmarinus officinalis. The latter species also grows near the entrance sign.

Mallow Family (Malvaceae)

A Diverse, Fascinating Family Of Incredibly Beautiful Flowers

  Links To Malvaceae Images On Other Wayne's Word Pages  

Chocolate (Theobroma cacao)
Major Changes In The Malvaceae
The mallow family contains some of the most beautiful wildflowers in San Diego County and some economically important species, including cotton & okra. Now several additional economically important families have been merged with the Malvaceae, including the chocolate family (Sterculiaceae: Cacao & cola nut), the basswood family (Tiliaceae: Basswood & jute), and the bombax family (Bombacaceae: Kapok & balsa).

Malvaceae: A. California Ayenia (Ayenia compacta), formerly in chocolate family (Sterculiaceae). B. Cheeseweed (Malva parviflora). C. Pink Flame Tree (Brachychiton discolor), formerly in the Sterculiaceae.

Economically Important Species in the Malvaceae: Left: Kapok (Ceiba pentandra), formerly in the bombax family (Bombacaceae). Center: Okra (Hibiscus esculentus). Right: Cotton (Gossypium) tetraploid hybrid).

Native Malvaceae (Subfamily Malvoideae) in San Diego County

Beautiful California native wildflowers in the Malvaceae: Left: Bush Mallow (Malacothamnus fasciculatus) in Palomar College Arboretum. Center: Apricot mallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua var. ambigua). Right: Desert 5-Spot (Eremalche rotundifolia). There are many more lovely native species.

Two former members of the cacao or chocolate family (Sterculiaceae) native to San Diego County. They now reside in the Malvaceae (subfamily Malvoideae). Left: Flannelbush (Fremontodendron californicum ssp. californicum), a colorful shrub native to shady desert canyons of the Laguna Mountains. Right: Ayenia compacta, an interesting little shrub native to rocky desert canyons. The unusual petal claws (stalks) are threadlike and curved.

DNA phylogenetic trees (cladograms) clearly show that the chocolate family (Sterculiaceae), basswood family (Tiliaceae), and bombax family (Bombacaceae) are not monophyletic. They are better treated as subfamilies within the mallow family (Malvaceae). This is similar to placing the duckweed subfamily Lemnoideae within the Arum family (Araceae).

Monophyletic: A taxonomic group that represents a single branch (clade) in a cladogram, and having a common ancestor. For example, all birds and reptiles are thought to have descended from a single common ancestor and are monophyletic. Humans (Homo) and chimpanzees (Pan) are also monophyletic.

Cotton rose (Hibiscus mutabilis), a beautiful shrub native to China. In the genus Hibiscus, the ovary develops into a capsule containing many seeds, unlike the schizocarp fruits of Lavatera and Malva. The five style branches each terminate in a capitate stigma. There are at least 200 species of Hibiscus, including some rare endemics in the Hawaiian Islands. The small ant is an Argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis).

The seed capsule of cotton rose (Hibiscus mutabilis), a beautiful shrub native to China. In the genus Hibiscus, the ovary develops into a capsule containing many seeds, unlike the schizocarp fruits of Lavatera and Malva. Each seed is covered with fine hairs. In fact, the genus Hibiscus is closely related to the genus Gossypium (cotton). In Gossypium, the seeds are covered with long epidermal hairs that are spun into cotton thread.

Hibiscus taiwanensis: A beautiful shrub native to Taiwan. There are at least 200 species of Hibiscus, including some rare endemics in the Hawaiian Islands.

Hibiscus arnottianus: The Hawaiian white hibiscus.

Left: Turk's cap (Malvaviscus arboreus), a native shrub from the southern U.S. to South America. Right: Bush mallow (Malacothamnus fasciculatus), a native shrub in the coastal sage scrub surrounding the Palomar College Arboretum. This beautiful shrub also appears within the Arboretum.

Sida phallox: Golden mallow native to the Hawaiian Islands.

Dombeya autumnalis: Autumn dombeya native to South Africa.

Talipariti elatum: Blue mahoe, named for the characteristic color of its wood after milling. Native to Jamaica and Cuba.

Ornamental Cotton (Gossypium barbadense)

Ornamental Cotton (Gossypium barbadense)

  Hibiscadelphous distans: A Very Rare Endemic On The Island Of Kauai  

The following is summarized from Wikipedia. For a scholarly article about this plant, please refer to the following reference. Hibiscadelphus distans is an extremely rare species of flowering plant in the mallow family (Malvaceae) that is endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauai. It is a bush or small tree with heart-shaped leaves that grows between 1,000 and 1,800 feet (300 and 550 m) in the remnants of native dry forests. Despite its rarity, it is believed to be the only surviving species in the genus Hibiscadelphus which is only known from the Hawaiian Islands. The other five species have recently become extinct in the wild, some being known from only a single plant.
David H. Lorence and Warren L. Wagner. 1995. "Another New, Nearly Extinct Species of Hibiscadelphus (Malvaceae) from the Hawaiian Islands." Novon , Summer, 1995, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Summer, 1995), pp. 183-187. Published by: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.

The flowers have the typical structure of mallows with style surrounded by a sheath of monadelphous stamens united by their filaments and exerted filiform stigmas; however, in my opinion they superficially appear quite distinct from other mallow blossoms in this fascinating plant family. The foliage is also covered with star-shaped hairs (stellate pubescence), also typical of many members of the Malvaceae. The following image shows a typical mallow flower that I used as a "keying out" unknown in my plant identification class at Palomar College during the previous millennium.

Hibiscadelphous distans flower showing monadelphous stamens and exerted, slender red stigmas. The petals are green, turning reddish with age. (see next image).

2 Cotton Seed Bugs Found On Foliage

These are seed-eating bugs in the family Lygaeidae, subfamily Oxycareninae, a subfamily of true bugs especially common in the Old World. They appear to be the cotton seed bug Oxycarenus hyalinipennis. In fact, the Wikipedia image of cotton seed bug is a close match. I received 11 suggested genera on iNaturalist. I followed up on Oxycarenus and it appears to be correct.

My Maco Image Of Oxycarenus Bugs On Hibiscadelphous distans:

More Images Of Oxycarenus On Ornamental Cotton

Nymphs in different stages of development were discovered in the cotton bolls of ornamental cotton (Gossypium barbadense) on campus. This tropical shrub is cultivated in frost-free areas throughout the world, originally from southwest Ecuador and northwest Peru.

Cotton Seed Bugs Found On Naturalized Malva

Malva pseudolavatera is a European species naturalized in coastal California. It occurs in Twin Oaks Valley and neighboring cities of Vista & Escondido. In South Escondido I have seen flowering plants infested with cottonseed bugs. It is listed in some references (Jepson Manual & World Flora Online) as M. multiflora. The following note from a Malva authority at Cambridge University states that M. multiflora is an invalid binomial:

Malva pseudolavatera Is Correct Name; Malva multiflora Invalid Binomial
From C.J. Davis At Cambridge University (Personal Communication, 6 November 2019)

... "Yes, the nomenclature has been a bit tricky. It started when Martin Forbes Ray did his PhD on the circumscription of Malva, and realised that Lavatera cretica (and others such as L. arborea) was really a species of Malva, very close to M. sylvestris (type species, as well as M. neglecta & M. nicaeensis), all occurring in California as introductions. He renamed L. cretica as Malva linnaei, but this wasn't really necessary, since the species had already been named."

"Unfortunately, Devesa had included the obscure name Malope multiflora as a synonym of Lavatera cretica. I corresponded with him, and we attempted to track down any evidence such as type material, to no avail. However, even the description as it stands cannot refer to Lavatera cretica. I had imagined this description (attached) referred to something like Malachra fasciata, but it's really impossible to tell. I've also attached my old correspondence with Devesa. Please feel free to use any of this. For this reason, Malva multiflora is an invalid combination, and Malva pseudolavatera (an ugly mouthful to be sure) stands."

Additional note from WPA & S. Disparti (14 Nov 2019): We have consulted several scholarly Italian & Spanish references where supposed basionym Malope multiflora is described as having "3-4 small, white flowers in each leaf-axil" and Lavatera cretica is listed as a separate species. This is clearly not the plant we know as Malva pseudolavatera; therefore, Malva multiflora cannot be the correct name for our plant.

Another Plant Bug That Likes Seeds In The Mallow Family

  More Images Of Arbutilon & Hibiscus Plant Bug  

Links To More Images Of Malvaceae On Wayne's Word:
  Herbaceous & Shrubby Malvaceae:  
See Beach Hibiscus: A Textile Plant
A Flower Of Another Beach Hibiscus
See The Seed Capsule (Boll) Of Cotton
   Unusual Naturalized Malva In San Marcos

  Campus Trees In Malvaceae:  
  Tiliaceae: Tilia & Sparmannia  
Sterculiaceae: Brachychiton
Cow Itch Tree (Lagunaria)
  More Fascinating Trees In Malvaceae:  
Unusual Pods & Putrid Flowers Of Indian Almond
  Trees With Remarkable Fruits, Including Ocean Drifter   

Annatto Family (Bixaceae)

The spiny red fruits of achiote (Bixa orellana), a large shrub native to tropical America. The seeds contain bixin, a bright red carotenoid pigment that was used to dye clothing during ancient times. Today the dye is used for food coloring and as body paint by South American Indians.

  More Information About Achiote  

Rock Rose Family (Cistaceae)

Rock rose (Cistus x purpureus), a hybrid between C. ladanifer and C. creticus.

Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)

Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera), a South African evergreen shrub that is naturalized in the hills of coastal sage scrub adjacent to Palomar College in San Diego County, California. This shrub has become a serious naturalized weed in Australia, forming massive thickets in all southern Australian states. It has also become an invasive weed in New Zealand.

  More Information About Boneseed  

A South African garden perennial that is naturalized throughout coastal San Diego County. It is listed in the Jepson Manual as Gazania linearis, although it also resembles G. rigens and is undoubtedly of hybrid origin.

Velvet groundsel (Senecio petasitis)

  The Enormous & Diverse Genus Senecio  

Mexican daisy tree (Montanoa bipinnatifida.)

Female coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) in the coastal sage scrub adjacent to the Palomar College Arboretum. The leaf shape and venation separate this species from broom baccharis (B. sarothroides), although I have observed some individuals resembling the latter species in the hills bordering Palomar College. The leafy bracts of the fruiting inflorescence are obovate and toothed, separating coyote brush from the closely related B. emoryi.

Close-up view of a female coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) in the Palomar College Arboretum. The obovate, toothed leaves (bracts) of the fruiting inflorescence (red arrow) and length of pappus separate this species from B. emoryi.

  The Enormous & Diverse Sunflower Family  
Parachute Achenes Of Salsify & Dandelion

Waterleaf Family (Hydrophyllaceae)

Left: Flowering branch of Wigandia caracasana in the Palomar College Arboretum. Note the dense, glistening hairs (trichomes) on the stem. Right: Detached flowers (corollas) of Wigandia. The petals are united (connate) into a broad, bell-shaped corolla with five spreading lobes (petals) and with five stamens attached to the inner corolla tube, one stamen inserted between each lobe. The middle corolla is inverted to show that the petals are completely fused into a tube.

  See Article About Wigandia caracasana In Arboretum   

Myrtle Family (Myrtaceae)

Calothamnus quadrifidus, a bottlebrush relative native to southwestern Australia. Because the flowers emerge on one side of the stem only, it is sometimes called "one-sided bottlebrush." The fragrant, resinous leaves superficially resemble the needlelike leaves of a true fir (Abies); however, they are unrelated and belong to entirely different plant divisions.

Darwinia citriodora, a low-growing shrub endemic to southwestern Australia. The generic name commemorates Dr. Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), grandfather of Charles Darwin. According to the Rules of International Botanical Nomenclature, this is the only genus in the entire plant kingdom that may carry the name Darwinia. The specific epithet "citriodora" refers to the citrus-scented foliage and is the derivation of the common name "scent myrtle."

Darwinia citriodora with flower buds.

Darwinia citriodora with mature flowers.

  Another Shrub in Arboretum Named After Charles Darwin